Ecology for Engineers
Structure of biological communities: categories of organisms, chemical reactions, energy flow. Population dynamics: temporal variations, interrelation, mathematical modelling. Structure of ecosystems: energy flow, biogeochemical cycles, mathematical modelling. Human population and environment. Natural environment, deforestation, soil degradation, environmental impacts. The environment in towns and cities, indoor pollution, noise. Pathogens, toxic pollutants, radiation. Water pollution, oxygen depletion, eutrophication. Air pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, green house phenomenon. Principles of pollution control. Economic development and the environment.
Transport phenomena in the aquatic environment: advection, molecular and turbulent diffusion, dispersion, related mathematical formulation. Physical, chemical and biochemical processes in the aquatic environment and reactors. Flow and mixing regimes in reactors (batch, continuous flow completely mixed and plug flow). Disposal of liquid wastes in recipients, study of self purification capacity and quantitative assessment of impacts (oxygen depletion in rivers, eutrophication in lakes, toxicity, microbial pollution of bathing waters). Reuse and utilisation of sewage and sludge with emphasis on agricultural practices. Principles of water and wastewater treatment in compliance with legal requirements and description of related treatment plants. Solid waste management according to the prevention ladder principle: characteristics, valorisation, collection and transportation, recycle, reuse, recovery of materials and energy, landfilling, composting, thermal treatment. Introduction to air and noise pollution due to traffic. Environmental impact assessments, related studies and environmental policies.
Groundwaters and surface waters intended for abstraction of potable water: quality requirements and relevant legislation. Requirements for the qualitative characteristics of potable water, monitoring programs. Water treatment plants: process design of conventional units (pre-chlorination, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection). Advanced treatment through activated carbon, ion exchange, membranes. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of domestic liquid wastes. Required treatment and relevant legislation. Wastewater treatment plants: process design of units (preliminary and primary treatment, secondary treatment). Mathematical model for the design of the activated sludge process aiming at carbon and nitrogen removal. Sludge treatment (thickening, digestion, dewatering). Tertiary effluent treatment (filtration, disinfection) and additional sludge processing for subsequent reuse and utilisation.
Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
Review of treatment, disposal and reuse processes with referonce to legislative requirements. Wastewater characterisation. Detailed design of wastewater treatment plants: layout, process calculations, hydraulic computations, technical considerations, equipment selection. Preliminary treatment (pumping, screening, reception of septage, grit and oil removal, odour control), primary treatment, activated sludge for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous removal with selectors and appropriate flow configurations for bulking control. Selection and design of aeration systems. Rectangular and circural settling tanks. Tertiary treatment units. Sludge treatment processes and biogas utilisation. Operational problems and automation. Environmental impact considerations. Design project.
Characteristics of fresh and potable water. Water treatment plant design: coagulation, flocculation and selection of coagulands, sedimentation, combined flocculation and sedimentation, filtration (sand and multimedia filters, washing processes, hydraulic computations process modelling), disinfection using alternative methods (chlorination, UV, ozone). Advanced treatment (RO, F, and hardness removal) and basic analytical methods.