Topics of Water Chemistry and Microbiology
Chemistry of water and characteristics of different types of water. Acid-base reactions. The bicarbonate system. Solubility. Chemical precipitation. Colloidal chemistry. Oxidation-reduction reactions. Introduction to organic chemistry. Application of chemical reactions to water and waste water treatment. Terrestrial and aquatic micro-organisms. Principles of taxonomy. Cell structure of organisms. Substrate uptake mechanisms. Microbial growth and associated kinetics. Effect of environmental factors. Carbon and nutrients cycles in the environment, oxygen depletion, eutrophication. Reactors and configurations. Enzymes and energy. Metabolic processes (catabolism - anabolism, photosynthesis). Half order reactions. Micro-organisms in the activated sludge process: heterotrophs, autotrophs (nitrifiers), Poly-P bacteria, pathogens. Biochemical reactions. Floc structure: floc formers and filaments. Selection and population dynamics.
Management of Aquatic Ecosystems and Sustainable Development
Basic concepts: management of ecosystems, sustainability, sustainable development. Characteristics of ecosystems with emphasis on aquatic ecosystems. Categorisation of aquatic ecosystems and sustainability criteria in relation to type and location. Technical, economical, legislative and social factors affecting the sustainability of ecosystems. Wetlands: water balance, biodiversity. Case studies. Field trips.
Management of Solid Wastes and Sludge
Sources and composition of municipal solid wastes and sludge. Collection and transportation systems. Separation methods, recovery of materials and energy. Biological and chemical treatment of biosolids: composting, digestion, liming. Thermal treatment: drying, incineration, pyrolysis, energy recovery, emission of air pollutants. Sanitary landfills: site selection, design, leachate collection and treatment, collection of biogas, remediation. Landfilling of excavation materials. Landfilling of sludge. Pollutants migration and degradation. Legislation, management and economics.
Advanced Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater and sludge characterisation. Removal of nutrients in activated sludge and fixed film treatment plants. Inhibition of biological processes. The sewer as a bioreactor. Advanced mathematical simulation of secondary treatment schemes. The effect of flow and mixing patterns. Selectors, final settling, sludge bulking and separation problems, flux theory. Treatment, disposal and utilisation of sludge. Tertiary treatment: filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, membranes, alternative disinfection processes. Principles and possibilities of wastewater reuse. Operation of wastewater treatment plants: sampling and analysis, on line monitoring, automation, operational problems and troubleshooting.
Production of Potable and Reclaimed Water. Required water quality for different uses (potable, irrigation, industrial, urban, amenity etc) and relevant legislation. Treatment schemes for the production of potable water in relation to the source and quality of the fresh water. Conventional and advanced treatment processes. Production of reclaimed water through advanced treatment of secondary effluents. Restricted and unrestricted reuse options, constraints and economics. Grey water and household applications. Wastewater reuse in the context of water resources management.
Mathematical Modelling of Pollutants Transport and Water Quality
Physical, chemical and biological processes in the environment (convection, dispersion, sedimentation, adsorption, biodegradation, photosynthesis, nutrients cycles). Experimental determination of parameters, mathematical description, variables and external imputs. Development of mathematical water quality models. Coupling of processes and transport phenomena and application to one, two and three dimensional water bodies (rivers, outfalls, lakes, coastal areas). Numerical analysis methods: finite elements, finite difference, stochastic approaches. Case studies. Introduction to ecological modelling (trophic chains, biodiversity etc.) with reference to aquatic ecosystems.
Experimental Methods in Sanitary Engineering
Laboratory training in experimental methods for the determination of parameters related to the quality of surface and ground waters and the treatment of water and wastewater. Analyses are performed by the students for total and suspended solids, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, conductivity, DO, BOD, COD, total, ammoniacal and nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus, selected metals and organic micropollutants, total and faecal coliforms. Characterisation of sewage and sludge, respiration, nitrification and denitrification rates. Microscopic identification of protozoa and filamentous bacteria.